Dr. Lucas van Dijck | Articles
The knife of The Garden of Earthly Delights
2016-2017 © Dr. Lucas van Dijck
Translated from Dutch by José Goris
The so-called “Bosch protocol” or the archive of the bench of aldermen of ‘s-Hertogenbosch is an almost invincible stronghold. Hundreds of thousands of acts, until the mid-16th century mostly in Latin, offer run-of-the-mill contents. For 90% they consist of acts dealing with real estate, leases, excise duties, money loans, acts of authorization and family quarrels. However, someone who is prepared to invest time in the matter on a regular basis, for at least several years, may get a deeper insight into the local history of the city and Bailiwick. In such cases every subject becomes an adventure. The acts of the 15th century have been made fully accessible, but the whole of the 16th century is a hopeless task, comparable to looking for a needle in a haystack. These acts, too, need to be indexed thoroughly. At the same time, almost all documents with regard to Jheronimus Bosch have been made accessible and they gave more insight in his life and family.  A different study, which has not been completed yet, shows that from about 1350 until about 1600 there were 2,500 priests in the town and Bailiwick who had a girlfriend and mostly also children! Almost 700 acts for the aldermen between 1437 and 1629 will shortly serve a historiography of the Birgitta convent, a double convent in Rosmalen (for men and women) called Coudewater. Very rarely a major surprise presents itself, like a golden pin in a haystack. Such an event, or rather: a complete coincidence has occurred right now. It has been helpful in shedding some light on the knife that we see on the Garden of Earthly Delights by Jheronimus Bosch, the pride of the Prado. Bosch depicts this knife also elsewhere, provided with a mark resembling an M or a B, depending on the angle from which you look at it.
Detail right panel of the Garden of Earthly Delights
Source: Prado, Madrid. Wikimedia commens.
Someone with a decades-long passion for the famous painter who discovers such an act, feels some professional excitement at such a treasure, the more so as direct references to the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch are very hard to find on Bosch’s works. The historian is also surprised that the act had never been noticed before. In the past we succeeded in identifying several of Bosch’s clients, such as the city secretary Pieter van Oss with his family, the black curly head Jan Pijnappel, the goldsmith Jacob Vezelaer and the Antwerp couple Jacob van de Voirde with his wife Cristina Pijnappel. At times an art historian pretends to see pictures of buildings in ‘s-Hertogenbosch or the contours of Heusden, but such pretexts will continue to be speculations. Jheronimus certainly depicted himself on his works several times. A fine discovery such as the Delft Gate of Vermeer has not turned up yet. The recently found act now gives us surprising information about one of the most famous paintings in the world: The Garden of Earthly Delights.
Sales act of mark M from 1538. © Photograph: Heritage ‘s-Hertogenbosch.
By means of an act of 1538 this mark can now be ascribed to the knife maker Anthonius Jonckers, also called Van den Grave. In this act Anthonius’s children sell the mark to another knife maker, called Anthonius van Tuyl. Until 29 March 1541 it was possible, but not mandatory for many knife makers of ‘s-Hertogenbosch to use their own mark, which had to be markedly different from other knives, but as from that date it became mandatory . The guild consisted of blacksmiths and knife makers together. This would also imply that all knives from ‘s-Hertogenbosch without marks, preserved in the ‘Groot Tuighuis’ or the North-Brabant Museum date back to before 1541. At least one knife is present in the ‘Groot Tuighuis’ with the mark of the big M, but the knife itself stands out because of its small size. The act runs as following: 
Wij Hercules en Balen Scepenen in sHertogenbosch doen condt enen yegelijcken dat opten dach van huyden voir ons gestaen zijn geweest Geertruyt ende Clara gesusteren dochteren wijlen Anthonis Jonckers ende hebben zoe voir hen selven ende oick inden name ende van wegen Jans ende Goessens houre bruederen alsulckenen teken wesende een ronde M als die voirseyde wijlen Anthonis hoer vader wesende als hij leefden een mesmaker op te messen die hij maecten als voir zijn teeken pleech te stellen ende slaen, ende daer mede hij zijn messen tekenden als hij  seeghden hebben zij wettelic ende erflic opgedragen Anthonissen Rycarts van Tuyl mesmaker tsamen metten alingen recht dat hen ende den voirseyde Janne ende Goessene hoeren bruederen daer toe ennichsins competeert en heeft dat erflic overgegeven in manieren in dien gewoenlic, gelovende die voirseyde Geertruit ende Clara met haeren mombaeren  super omnia en habenda etc. etc. … soe hebben wij scepenen vorseyd onse zegelen hier aen doen hangen gegeven den VIIJe novembris (1538) .
We Hercules and Balen aldermen in ‘s-Hertogenbosch declare to each and everyone that on the present day on the date of this letter Geertruyt and Clara, sisters and daughters of the late Anthonis Jonckers appeared before us, and, both for themselves and also on behalf of Jan and Goessen, their brothers, legally and hereditary dedicated to Anthonius son of Rijcart  van Tuyl, knife maker, the mark, being a round M as the aforementioned late Anthonius, being their father, during his life a knife maker, used to apply as his sign and coin it on the knives he produced, and they transferred it in the usual way, together with the entire right that befell them and their brothers Janne and Goessene, and the aforementioned Geertruyt and Clara with their guardians promise they will stick to this in every possible way etc etc. As a witness for this we, the aforementioned aldermen, had our seal affixed to it. Issued 8 November (1538).
Several conclusions can be drawn from this act:
A: The first observation is that the mark is absolutely identical to the one on the Garden of Earthly Delights. It is even believed to be a round M.
B: Only Anthonius Jonckers used this mark during his life while practising his profession.
C: The mark was judicially protected and under “copyright”.
D: The mark is described as an M, so it is not a B.
If we want to know more about Anthonius Jonckers we must refer to the tough auxiliary science of genealogy and we will soon conclude that around 1480 – 1530 there were three persons with the name of Anthonius Jonckers. The first lived in Rosmalen, but his children’s names reveal that he is not our knife maker. The second was called Anthonius Jonckers alias Die Wael. He turned out to be a merchant in butter and cheese and have children with different names. He, too, dropped out as the author of the ‘knife of Bosch’, but as it happened he turned out to be the brother-in-law of the ‘real’ Anthonius. The third Anthonius was Anthonius Jonckers alias Van den Grave. He appeared to be the only possible maker of the knife of the Garden of Earthly Delights. The two last mentioned were members of an old family of knife makers (active from at least 1420) with the name of Jonckers. When the Jonckers family in the male lineage had died out around 1482 and the last descendant preferred monastic life, two sons-in-law had already taken over the workplace, namely Marcelius van den Grave alias Jonckers, who died approximately 1497, and Petrus die Wael, who had already died before 1471. Petrus die Wael’s sons (Anthonius die Wael alias Jonckers and Jan die Wael) did not want to be knife makers so that Marcelius van den Grave alias Jonckers’s eldest son (Anthonius) continued the workplace alone. That must have been around 1498. He died shortly before 1529. He was about 10 years younger than Bosch, and died about 10 years after him.
This means that the Garden of Earthly Delights must have been made between 1497and 1516, the year Jheronimus Bosch died. The question why Bosch depicted the M on the knife can only be answered with speculation. Was he on friendly terms with the craftsman Anthonius, who lived and worked less than 200 metres away from him? Did he want to promote his workshop? Or did Anthonius practise a way of living that was not sufficiently in line with Catholicism or faith and for this reason ended up on the panel of rack and ruin? The social status of the family could be called minimal, as opposed to that of for instance his brother-in-law Anthonus Jonckers alias die Wael. I am happy to leave such speculations to art historians.
A different question is why Anthonius used the letter M. Here, too, plenty of suggestions have come up: was it the M of the ‘Messenmakers’, the knife makers? Was it probably the M of both his father and mother (Marcelius van den Grave and Maria Jonckers). Or did he just fancy the letter M?
At the end of this article the risk to take away the scholarly ground from under my own two feet will serve me as a mixed blessing but the reliability required in historical research brings along some doubts in the end. The 1538 act in question attributes the letter M to Anthonius Jonckers. But the text does not say if his father Marcelius (the M of Marcelius!) already did so before 1498! At any rate it was a mark of his son Anthonius. Future investigation may confirm this. The fact that the Jonckers family of ‘s-Hertogenbosch is now displayed in the Prado by means of a knife is absolutely certain and remarkable enough in itself.
The presence of marks on knives is very rare before approximately 1525: around 1496 a letter ‘b’ occurs on Boudewijn’s knives (the letter ‘b’ of Boudewijn?) son of Jacop van Eerssel, a knife maker who died before 27 May 1496 and left two sons: Herman and Aert. It became clear that the knife maker Herman Dircx used the same mark. Boudewijn’s children agreed that Herman Dircx was allowed to continue using the mark in the future. By coincidence the city’s Praxiteles, the sculptor Joost Jonckers, who supplied the town hall with four new sculptures in 1532, could be placed during this investigation. See also Jeroenboschplaza.com.
As a result of the above conclusions another remarkable coincidence has come up: on the three highly exceptional engravings from around 1500 – 1525, which by all means were made in ‘s-Hertogenbosch, a signature ‘Bos’ together with a separate knife are depicted. The knife does not bear a mark or other special signs.
According to J. Koldeweij  the engraver could be identical with the ‘s-Hertogenbosch goldsmith Michiel Michielsz. van Gemert, who worked in the city from 1503 to 1523. He engraved amongst other things several goblets and knives for the Illustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady in 1509-1511 and 1516-1517. Such an assignment could be possible as such, but there are also some substantial objections. In the first place it is not clear, indeed, if the given word is the word ‘Bos’, because the first letter (a capital) looks like a Y rather than a B. Moreover: why would a goldsmith take a knife as a symbol? Michiel was not a knife maker, but a goldsmith. It is true, he engraved knives, but he also made several monstrances. Why would a goldsmith identify himself with knives, not exactly the most valued products in his metier? Moreover the knife – which does not show a single engraving on the picture in question – cannot be meant as a tool for engraving: in that case he would have depicted a burin.
Interesting but not convincing either is the order commissioned to Michiel for the lottery of 1522-1523 by the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch:
“Item Michielen die goutsmit om die juwelen ende prijsen opt papier te ontwerpen om die zelve te doen prenten en drucken”.
In other words: he has drawn the prizes on paper, but obviously someone else has engraved and printed them! Why did the municipality not approach Michiel as engraver? I suspect that the lottery tickets were printed in Antwerp. In addition other goldsmiths may be designated as engravers, too. When Michiel died in the Grootzieken-hospital in a wretched condition in 1523-1524, the Brotherhood approached the well-known goldsmith from ‘s-Hertogenbosch Gevaert Wyntkens for the engraving of the tin pots . With the same arguments he, and in principle any goldsmith in ‘s-Hertogenbosch, may have been the maker of the engravings. Therefore we must interpret the suggestion of Koldeweij as too weak and speculative. Conclusion: Quod gratis ponitur, gratis negatur. Or: a statement made off-hand is soon denied off-hand, too. Does the knife perhaps refer to a knife maker?
Isn’t is logical then to think again of the knife maker Anthonius Jonckers, who was not only a knife maker but to whom Bosch also alluded several times through his mark on the Garden of Earthly Delights and other paintings. The knife depicted on the engravings would refer to his primary occupation of knife maker. A good knife maker could also be an engraver, if he was artistically inclined to some degree and possessed skills. It is a pity that no marks are displayed on either knife on the engravings. Even though my preference for the engraver is related to Anthonius Jonckers, this hypothesis cannot be proved. The following posts from the Brotherhood may be extremely interesting to the dating of certain ‘s-Hertogenbosch knives and their makers:
In the accounts of the Brotherhood of 1509-1510 (scan 360) we cite:
“Michielen den gautsmit voer XJ paer messen zoe voer den principal incoep ende zoe dat hij daer op gesneden oft gesteken heeft op deen zijde een beelt van ons liever vroue in een bosch, ende in een rulleken “Ecce quam bonum et quam jocundum” ende op dander zijde die devise der voirs. bruderscap ende in een rulleken “Habitare fratres in unum”. IIIJ gulden XIIJ st.”
Here a ‘rulleken’ is a banderole with inscription, and a ‘devise’ is here the device of the Brotherhood, being a lily with the word ‘Sicut’. No specimen of these Brotherhood knives could be retraced.
However, from the accounts we get no know more about the way in which knives for the Brotherhood were engraved, notably for the provisors or ‘agents’ working elsewhere. In 1511-1512 (scan 382) we read:
“Michiel van Gendt (sic) van dat hy gesteken heeft VJ paer messen IV stuyvers ende een mesmeker die deser bruderscap vercocht heeft die voirs. VJ paer messen, tpaer IV stuvers”.
In account 1516-1517: (scan 337):
“Michiel van Gemert goutsmet voer een paer messen te steken ons liever vrouwen divise ende op iij st. ende van iij messen voer ons provisoir van Huesden die voers. divise der op te steken ende op elck messe op die nagel die hoefden van den apostelen. VIIJ st.”.
So, in these series of knives apostles’ heads were engraved on the rivets of the handle. Year after year the Brotherhood donated knives to the provisors, and sometimes their wives, too, were regaled with smaller women’s knives! It also becomes clear from these quotations that the purchase and engraving of a knife were equally expensive.
Pieter Breugel the Old: The big fish eat the small ones.
Wrongly attributed to Jheronimus Bosch
More ‘s-Hertogenbosch knives with engravings are known, such as a knife with the national apple or a globe covered by a cross. This sign, in Christian iconography often depicted on God the Father’s or Christ’s hand, is a symbol of the universality of Christendom.
On a picture, issued by Hieronymus Cook in Antwerp after an example of Jheronimus Bosch (Hieronymus Bos. Inventor) a big knife forces its way into the belly of a fish. This was also the sign of the ‘s-Hertogenbosch goldsmith Folkart van den Dijck, who worked and lived in ’s-Hertogenbosch during Bosch’s life. A completely different version of a Bosch knife is depicted in “Putten uit het Bossche verleden” in an article by Ronald van Genabeek. Here a knife which was dug up near the convent of Annenborch in Rosmalen is concerned, showing twice a threesome of rosettes on its handle and twice a male figure, probably a saint. The knife is in the ‘Groot Tuighuis’ nowadays. 
Engraving of the engraver with ‘wood with knife’, in the Ashmolean Museum.
Salernes (France): Dr. Lucas G.C.M. van Dijck
Supplement I: Some genealogies Jonckers.
Fragment A: Genealogy Jonckers in Rosmalen
Anthonius Jonckers lived until about 1520 and was well-to-do in Rosmalen and ‘s-Hertogenbosch. He got three sons by his wife Elisabeth, viz. Godefridus, Dirk (married to Elisabeth, widow of the baker Gerard, son of Henrik Gerard Janszoon) and Andreas.  We can leave aside this Anthonius. He was not a knife maker and his children’s names are completely different.
The second Anthonius Jonckers descends through his mother from the Jonckers alias Van der Werde family.
Fragment B: Genealogy Jonckers alias Van der Werde
I Henrick van der Werde and the Jonckers company
Around 1400 Henrick lived in the town on the Zijle as the son of Jan Gijsberts van der Werde and Christien daughter of Hilla Jonckers . He died before 1424  For two centuries the name of Jonckers would turn out to be stronger from the female than from the male branch. Henrick had a brother Gijsbertus, who was married to Liesbeth, natural daughter of Jacob Scutter and who had been married before to Art Last, and in a third marriage she married Rutger Robbert Rutten .
The parental home had been bought by their grandmother Hilla from the well-known Lombard Johannes de Brolyo , an Italian who married a daughter of the king of arms Jan Coninc van Steensel in ‘s- Hertogenbosch  Henricus’s occupation has remained unknown. He married a woman called Agnes, and they got five children, who named themselves “van der Werde alias Jonckers”.
1: Goossen, see II
2: Jan, with as children Henrick, Willem, Agnes, married to Johannes Broess. On 26 August 1457 they sold the home of their grandparents on the Zijle.
3: Geertruid, married to Arnd, natural son of Johannes Heym. On 29 April 1438 she was heiress to a certain Petrus van Orthen.  In this act she stated to be entirely satisfied as to the marriage gift which Petrus had given her via her mother Agnes.
4: Jenneke 
5: Agnes, married to Jan Ambroes Janss. 
II: Goossen Van der Werde alias Jonckers.
Goossen became a knife maker by occupation and took up residence in the Zadelmakerstraat or Zadelstraat behind the Friars Minor. He took over the name of Jonckers from his mother Agnes Jonckers.
He, too, became an external member of the ILVB (the initials of ‘Illustere Lieve Vrouwe Broederschap’, the Illustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady) and his death debt was paid after his death in 1460. His wife called Heilwich also became a member, and her death debt was paid in 1470. This makes clear until what year Goossen led his company of Jonckers-knife makers.
Several acts tell a bit more about him, amongst other things that he was executor of a certain Gerard van Mierde and his wife Assele in 1434.  This means that he was at least 23 years old then so born before 1411. In the act he is called a knife maker (cultellifex). However, the year in which he was born was probably at least ten years earlier, around 1400, for on 20 November 1423 the young knife maker bought a house and place from Goijard son of Willem Kemp behind the Friars Minor, next to the priest Johannes Meersken son of Goyard Meersken and next to Ghybo Schaep.
Behind the house he bought an additional small lot with a stone cottage on it. The house remained charged with a land excise duty, to be paid to the landlord, and the selling price was an annual excise of a 10 pounds’ payment to the seller. .
In the following years several of his financial transactions are known in 1426, 1429, 1434 and 1449, which are not very relevant  They were all additions to his income. Apparently Goossen was doing well, for on 20 December 1443 he bought another house adjacent to his own from the priest Johannes van Dommelen (who is by the way identical to the above mentioned Johannes Meersken). It was situated near the Abtsbridge and bordered by the abbot of Sint Truiden , and next to the other house of Goessen Jonckers himself, and by Claes son of Godefridus Godde. The house was charged with several excise duties for the benefit of amongst other things the Grootzieken-hospital, the Neynsel hospital, and to the infirmary of the Groot Begijnhof. All together Goossen owned a considerable complex of buildings fit for habitation and a workshop at a distance of less than 100 yards from Jheronimus Bosch’s house.
After his death his son Henricus and sons-in-law Marcel van den Grave and Petrus die Wael took over the company.
The son Joost and the daughters Adriana and Lijsbeth took up the trade of cheese and butter and prospered in business. The children took over the premises behind the Friars Minor from their father Goessen, while the last three (Joost, Adriana and Lijsbeth) lived together in one house. Henrik left for Rosmalen and Marcelius stayed in the other house of his father-in-law, which also accommodated the knives workplace. If we follow the second generation Goessen and Heilwich had the following children:
1: Henrick, see III
2: Maria, married to Marcel van den Grave (see genealogy Jonckers alias Van den Grave)
3: Joost, zie IIIa
4: Aleijt, married to Petrus die Wael (see genealogy Jonckers alias die Wael)
5: Adriana, see IIIB
6: Lijsbeth, see IIIC
7: Gijsbertke, see IIID.
III: Henrick van der Werde alias Jonckers:
Born around 1425 he became an external member of the ILVB in 1455 at the age of 30. He died shortly before 15 June 1482 and was memorized in 1483 in the Brotherhood from Berlicum, where he apparently lived. His first wife was Margriet, daughter of Gijsbert Bollen and Elisabeth NN, who became an external member of the ILVB in 1468. His second wife was Aleijt daughter of Dirck Goyards. As he succeeded his father in the workshop, he moved to Berlicum. Several financial transactions are known from him, such as from 1451 until 1482.  Striking is an act of 15 October 1468, when Jheronimus Bosch was 18 years old: at that time our knife maker Henrick bought under the law of redemption an excise of 11 pounds, obtained by Gerardus Paulusz Ketheler from Anthonius van Aken… Jheronimus Bosch’s father. An act of 6 October 1476 is extraordinary:  a certain Jan and Henrick Peijnenborch declare that they are perfectly satisfied with the completion of manslaughter by Reynerus die Bye on their brother Willem Peijnenborch. They received from Johannes son of Gerardus Snoeck, Claes die Becker, Dirck Vos son of Johannes, and from Henricus die Joncker (=Jonckers) the knife maker 100 golden guilders and the realisation of a penal pilgrimage to Rome, the organisation of the so-called ‘thirtieth’ (a daily mass up till the thirtieth day after the murder), four candles during these masses and the obligation to move and live permanently outside the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. Supposedly Henricus Jonckers was a helpful member of the culprit’s family. It did not become clear in the act, though, if the money was intended in addition to or as a replacement of the imposed punishment.
After Henrick’s death his brother-in-law Marcelius van den Grave alias Jonckers managed the Jonckers company alone. Henrick became about 58 years old and left the following children: three from his first marriage and one from the second.
1: Goeswinus, became a priest and monk in the Saint Jheronimus monastery in Hulsenberge on the Veluwe. For 50 guilders he sold one third of the entire inheritance to his sister Agatha and her husband Johannes son of Henricus Scheelken in 1509 . The monastery was part of the Modern Devotion.
2: Agatha , married Johannes son of Henricus Scheelken, after that Jan Hermansz van Dulmen also called Pladerkrans, after that Jacop Pauwels and finally Willem van Erp.
3: Joris, died at a rather young age or left around 1500. He did not leave any children .
IIIA Joost Jonckers
Joost remained unmarried and became an external member of the ILVB in an unknown year, but he was deregistered as deceased in 1488. Together with his sisters Lijsbeth and Adriana he bought the inheritance of his other sister Aleid, widow of Petrus die Wael on 30 March 1471.  He formed an enterprise together with his unmarried sisters Adriana and Lijsbeth and their main trade was in cheese, butter and so on. Together the threesome bought a house on 10 February 1479 from Katharina, widow of Johannes Karnauw, situated in the Zadelmakerstraat near the Jodenpoort across the bridge and an additional room at the back of this house. From their parents’ house their trading prosperred, even though the Guelders robbed them of a valuable cargo of cheese and butter near Nederhemert on the Waal shortly before 6 August 1479. The city refunded an amount of 920 guilders for this act of war. 
Joost died in middle age, remained unmarried but fathered an extramarital son:
Goessen, see IV.
IIIB: Adriana Jonckers.
Together with her brother Joost and her sister Lijsbeth she lived unmarried in a house in the Zadelmakerstraat and together with them she also traded in cheese, butter and so on. In 1451 she entered the ILVB as a member and in 1485 she was commemorated as deceased. In business matters she is mentioned in several transactions . As a rich aunt she left much to her relatives.
IIIC: Lijsbeth Jonckers
Together with her brother Joost and her sister Adriana she lived unmarried in a house in the Zadelmakerstraat and together with them she also traded in cheese, butter and so on. As a member of the ILVB she was reported deceased in 1514. After her death the Jonckers family sold her house next to ‘The Nobel’ to Willem son of Johannes Moel.
IIID: Gijsbertke Jonckers
Is only mentioned on 25 July 1472, with the addition of “uxor Petri van den Dael”, but these words were erased. 
IV Goessen Jonckers.
Born as a natural son of the unmarried Joost Jonckers (lll). He was an external member of the ILVB in 1495. What he did for a living remains unknown.  It is clear, though, that he was looked after very well as to financial matters: on 10 November 1512 he received an annuity of as much as 34 Rhine guilders in the five Dutch cities for the rest of his life, from the legacy of his aunt Liesbeth. After that he left for Alkmaar, where he married a certain Dyewaar and owned a house in the Boterstraat. On 15 May 1525 their son Joost stated that he had dedicated his legal portion in it to his sister Agnes. Some years later, on 5 September 1530, Agnes turned out to be a nun in the Saint Agnes Convent in Alkmaar. A certain Reyner son of Gerard Mathijszoon, domiciled in ‘s-Hertogenbosch and brother (or half-brother?) of Goessen, authorized sister Agnes to look after his inheritance. Children:
1: Joost, see V.
2:Agnes, a nun in the Saint Agnes Convent in Alkmaar.
3: William, see VA
V Joost Jonckers
Born in ’s-Hertogenbosch or Alkmaar as the son of Goessen Jonckers. He was probably the famous sculptor who made four new sculptures for the front of the town hall in 1532.  In the chronicles of Balen, Loeff and Everwijn from 1608  he is mentioned: “Judocus Jonckers statuaria arte alter Praxiteles ut simulacra ab eo perpolita testantur ad exterarum gentium stuporem”. Unfortunately nothing more has become known about him. In 1506 he also took part as a young man in the town’s lottery. On 28 June 1561 a certain deceased Joost Jonckers is mentioned who had as children: a: Mariken; b: Margrietken; c: Jenneken; d: Zara. Their father might have been the sculptor .
VA Willem Jonckers
On 4 May 1556 and 15 February 1561 he appears to have a son Henricus and a daughter Aelken and he authorizes her to look after his business together with Martinus Timmermans. William died shortly before the beginning of 1561.
The second Anthonius Jonckers is a descendant of a family called Jonckers alias Van der Grave.
Fragment C: Genealogie Van den Grave alias Jonckers
I Marcelius Janszoon van den Grave alias Jonckers.
Marcelius always called himself “Van den Grave”, but in the accounts of the ILVB of 1527 he is called “Van den Grave alias Jonckers”. His children call themselves in turn “van den Grave” or “Jonckers” or both, with “alias” in between. Marcelius got married to Maria, the daughter of knife maker Goessen Jonckers (see fragment ll ad 2) and he also took over his workplace in the Coffermakerstraat. At first he worked there together with his eldest brother-in-law Henricus Jonckers and his other brother-in-law Peter die Wael. The first time Marcelius was mentioned as Maria’s husband dates back to 22 June 1471  when together with his brother-in-law Henricus Jonckers he gave up their inheritance portion of a house at the back of the Friars Minor next to the Abtsbridge, situated next to Gerardus van Rode, a carpenter, and the well-known master Willem Hoernkens, a clockmaker. His brother-in-law Henricus Jonckers was still prosperous apart from the sold property. The house also bordered the Dieze. Henricus and Marcelius gave up their portion in favour of their brother and sisters Joost, Adriana and Elisabeth Jonckers (brother-in-law and sisters-in-law respectively).
An important detail in this act is the fact that it demonstrated that Marcelius was married as from 1471. The next transaction took place on 3 June 1480  when, together with three other people, he promised an amount of 22 Rhine guilders to Cornelis Dicbier. One year later, on 27 March 1481 , his brother-and-sisters-in-law Joost, Adriana and Elisabeth Jonckers set up an annuity of 5 gold Rhine guilders out of their house behind the Friars Minor on Marcelius’s daughter Goesken’s life. It is almost certain that this big donation served as a dowry to their niece before she entered a convent. Goesken may have been about 14 to 16 years old then so she was born as the eldest daughter in approximately 1460.
On 16 September 1482 and 12 December 1482 he borrowed 10 ½ Rhine guilders and 50 Crowns. He received this loan from his fellow knife maker Everard son of Jacob van Stiphout.. He needed money a second time and borrowed 4 pounds payment and 10 Peters from Willem Pieckenet, to be paid back in two years’ time on 4 January 1483. . After that it remains quiet around Marcelius. A document of 17 September 1492  informs us that he paid a tax of2 pounds from his house on the Grootzieken-hospital. On 16 July 1493  we hear from him for almost the last time. On this day he sold a tax of 6 pounds payment on his house to Willem Pieckenet, which was said to be situated behind the Friars Minor near the Abtsbridge in between Willem Bloemkens and Nicolaas Dircx, and from the street till the monastery. Finally Marcelius is seen on 28 July 1494 . Then he sold a 2 pounds’ tax payment from his house, which still had the same neighbours, but here Bloemkens is called a carpenter. The interest had to be paid off after two years with 11 Rhine guilders. In short: his death occurs in between July 1494 and 1498. Nevertheless, there are many indications that Marcelius did not die before 1497 or 1498, for the death contribution to the ILVB was usually paid soon after the funeral, and moreover his widow Maria displayed her first activities to put family life back on track from 14 February 1499..
Of course he also became an external member of the ILVB  shortly before 1480 to be precise, when he paid his arrears in entrance fee. His arrears in death debt was paid in 1498 and a part in 1527, also for his deceased wife Maria. At his registration in 1480 the fact that he lived opposite his father-in-law Goessen Jonckers was also mentioned.
Let us look further into the developments of the widow’s life. On 14 February 1499  it became clear that she possessed 1/3 part of a house on the Vuchterdijk, the usufruct of which was granted to her three children Johannes, Anthonius, Hubertus and their sisters whose names were not mentioned. After that the house itself was sold by the entire Jonckers family to Petrus Henricus Loyen. On 22 April of the same year  she, as a widow, sold her house behind the Friars Minor – bordered by baker Arnoldus van Hezewijck and bought at the time by Marcelius van Bela, daughter of Johannes van der Stege – to Reynerus, son of Johannes Daems and to Stephanus Becker. On 17 April 1501  she promised a certain Dirk Hagens to pay him7 guilders immediately after her sister Elisabeth’s death. Together with other members of the Jonckers’ family she finally promised Henricus Osman a payment of 3 ½ pounds for a period of 8 years. Later it became clear that her son Anthonius granted his mother an annuity of 3 Rhine guilders from a house in Bakel. .
In all Marcelius left six children  :
1: Goesken, probably became a nun.
2: Antonius, see II.
3: Hubertus: is still mentioned in 1527 as a vigilante, but he left shortly afterwards to Hamburg, where he lived in 1534 yet he still received an inheritance from ‘s – Hertogenbosch, from his cousin Johanna Jonckers alias Die Wael .
4: Joost: On an unknown date he sold the parental house in the Coffermakerstraat to the knife maker Wessel son of Johannes van Scuttrop. In 1522 he still took part in the town lottery. His son Gerlacus was still well-to-do there in 1560 and at the time the house was adjacent to “t Gulden Hoet” .
II: Anthonius Jonckers alias Van den Grave (The man of the Garden of Lusts).
Born around 1465 as the son of Marcelius Jans van den Grave (I) and Maria Jonckers. After the death of his grandfather Goossen Jonckers and his uncles Henricus Jonckers (died around 1482) and Peter die Wael (before 1471) he, being the only grandson, took over Goossen’s workplace as a knife maker in the Zadelmakerstraat.
Following the goldsmiths he had his own mark with the shape of a fine M. He married a certain Geertruid, who died shortly before 1521 as an external member of the ILVB. Not much is known about Anthonius. In 1504 he paid no more than five cents and 3 ½ oirt for tax, a rather small amount. His brother-in-law, the prosperous businessman Anthonius Jonckers alias Die Wael paid fifteen times as much. The years before and after, too, show us a picture of a simple way of living, translated in a low tax levy.
We also know that he did not want to leave his widowed mother unattended. He donated her annuity of 3 guilders from a house in Bakel, but the date of this act is unknown.  On 10 November 1512 he promises, together with his cousins, the lifelong benefit of an annuity of 34 guilders to Goessen, natural son of Joost son of Goessen Jonckers.  Goessen was his first cousin, albeit from illegitimate descent. On 20 May 1513 he takes part as such in the sales of his maternal grandfather’s Goessen Jonckers’s real estate, which had not been divided yet. After that silence fell around Anthonius’s family: no purchase or sale of real estate, interests or excise. Yet, in 1520 we find a trace of his son Goossen: he had been a singer for the Brotherhood for a period of six months and was eager to obtain a permanent appointment, but the brothers found his skills insufficient. They paid him two guilders and ten 5-cents pieces. . None of the children became a member of the ILVB. They were clearly not much interested in religion and piety. Marriages of the five children are not reported and after 1538 they are not mentioned any longer. It is obvious that none of the children continued their father´s trade and probably they have all departed to other places. Possibly the son Goossen became a singer elsewhere. On 27 March 1531 we come across the two daughters Clara and Geertruyt, when they authorized two prosecutors in a case against the official in Diest, which, for that matter, had as its tenor that the two sisters contested a will or its execution of a certain Sophia Anssems, probably a relative.
In an act of 14 August 1529 the children were involved in a suit for the town´s aldermen with regard to a payment of 3 gold guilders for delivery of goods by Arnd ten Bosch. From this we may also conclude that father Anthonius must have died before this date. The last sign of life of Anthonius´s children acting together dates back to 9 November 1538, when they sold the right of their father´s mark to the knife maker Antonis Goyards (or Leonards) van Tuyl alias Neyts. A striking feature in the text is the fact that the two sisters still have guardians and so not yet 23 years old. If and in what way the workshop was run between about 1529 and 1538 has not become clear. Compared to Jheronimus Bosch we may roughly assume that his knife maker was about ten years younger than Jheronimus himself and died about ten years later. The knife maker of the Garden of Earthly Delights left the following children:
4: Goessen: perhaps he had a daughter Geertken, who lived in 1559.
The third Anthonius Jonckers is a descendant from the Jonckers alias Die Wael family.
Fragment D: Genealogy die Wael alias Jonckers 
Forefather of this branch is Petrus die Wael. He was a knife maker by occupation and married Aleid, daughter of the knife maker Goessen Jonckers.
The oldest mentioning of Petrus dates back to 1471  when his wife Aleid daughter of Goessen Jonckers the knife maker was mentioned as his widow. Petrus was a knife maker, too, and probably worked in his father-in-law’s workshop. He must have died at a rather young age. In 1486 Aleid became an external member of the ILVB, whereas afterwards her death is not mentioned. Nothing more is known about the young widow, apart from the fact that she took part in all family matters mentioned before in connection with her brothers and sisters. From these data it also becomes clear that they died between 10 November 1512 and 20 May 1513. . She was a widow for more than 40 years and raised three children:
1: Anthonius Jonckers alias Die Wael, see II
2: Jan, see IIA
II: Anthonius Jonckers alias die Wael married Bertha van Teeffelen from a well-to-do merchant family. His father’s occupation, a knife maker, did not appeal to him very much and he took over the trade and the business of his deceased uncle Joost and his aunts Adriana and Liesbeth Jonckers: merchant in butter, cheese and so on. He did so in partnership with his brother-in-law Henrick Volckaert van den Dijck. The Van den Dijck family became extremely prosperous. Anthonius’s mother (Bertha) and Henrick’s wife (Zoeta) were sisters. He was registered as a member of the ILVB, but it is unknown in which year. His deletion from the membership’s list after his death dates back to 1531. His wife Bertha also became a member; she paid her entrance in 1564 as well as her death debt before she died in 1564. The family reached a considerable wealth and owned several renowned houses at the Market place, such as “De Zwarte Arend” and “de Witte Arend” and “de Keersboom”. As this Anthonis Jonckers is not the man of the Garden of Earthly Delights, we will mention the pedigree only briefly.  His house in the Colperstraat was sold on 19 September 1536.  He and Bertha had the following children:
1: Clara, born in 1519, joined the order of the Franciscan Sisters behind the Tolbrug in 1534. Later she became a mater.
2: Cornelis, see III
3: Dorffa. Became a member of the ILVB in 1509, was married to Henricus Willem Jans Gast, who gave her eight children, one of them a Franciscan Sister in Lennick (Anna), a Claris in ‘s-Hertogenbosch (Yda, born 1509), and an Augustine Inde Weyde near Venlo (Catharina, born 1507). She remarried Willem Pijnappel. Her other children were Dorffa, married to Henricus Henricx Kemp; Willelma, married to Henricus Goeswinus Heeren and Agnes, married to Gijsbertus Jans IJsbrants.
4: Agnes, member of the ILVB in 1518.
5: Anthonis, member of the ILVB in 1519.
6: Aleid, member of the ILVB in 1530, died in 1560. Her family inherited in nine portions “de Zwarte Arend” in the Market place and paid 80 guilders of inheritance tax, an amount which was extremely high. .The house was left to cousin Agnes and her husband Gijsbert IJsbrants. She made her will on 10 April 1555.
7: Heilwich, Claris in ‘s-Hertogenbosch. Paid her death debt to the ILVB before her death in 1581.
8: Goeswina, member of the ILVB from 1527, moniale at the Sisters of Orthen.
IIA: Jan Jonckers alias Die Wael
Almost nothing is known about him, and only little about his children.  It is unknown who his wife was. Children: A: Goessen. Married Janneke NN, and had as children: a: Peter (married to Christina Willem Jan Willems Gast  with a son Jan ); b: Willem (married to Christina van Sunderen with a son Henrik and a daughter Aleid ); c: Boudewijn (whose daughter Jenneke married Walraven Franszoon with as children Frans and Lijsken) .
III: Cornelis Jonckers alias Die Wael.
He did not follow his father’s trade as a merchant, but became a tinctor, a dyer of cloth. Eefsa, daughter of Peter Paulusz Raessen became his wife. Several of his transactions are known, but they are not relevant here  It is striking that as from this generation (born as from 1500) the ILVB membership fell almost completely out of fashion!
Children of Cornelis en Eefsa:
1: Brigitta, married to Nicolaes son of Livinus Jans. The couple lived in Elbingen. 
2: Peter, had lived and probably died in Danzig in the 1590s. He first married Barbara daughter of Peter Collarts, and after that Elisabeth Beyens, daughter of Goessen Beyens alias In den Beer (sworn brother of the ILVB).  His children were: A: Bertha (married to Johan Willemsz Zyberts or Zebrechs, councillor ); B: Nicolaus ; C: Barbara (married to Loef Petersz van den Goor); D: Ese (married to Thomas Ophoven); E: Hans or Jan  F: Bertken (became a member of the ILVB in 1564).
3: Raso, mentioned among others on 31 August 1541. 
4: Jan or Hans: mentioned on 9 May 1560. 
 Dr. G.C.M. van Dijck, In search of Jheronimus van Aken alias Bosch. The facts, family, friends and clients. Zaltbommel 2001.
 Mr. N.H.L. van den Heuvel, The trade guilds of ’s-Hertogenbosch before 1629, Utrecht 1946, II, p. 504.
 R. 1330, fol. 22vo, 8 November 1538.
 Inadvertently mentions he instead of she.
 Apparently both sisters are not yet 23 years old.
 R. 1330, fol. 22vo.
 Sometimes called Lenaert.
 R.1265, fol. 467.
 J.A.M. Koldeweij, P. Vandenbroeck and B. Vermet, Jheronimus Bosch, All paintings and drawings, Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen, 2001.
 Account Brotherhood 1522-1523.
 RMAB i3683.
 R. 1308, fol. 288, 30 June 1528; and R. 1346, fol. 87, 21 October 1547.
 R. 1175, fol. 108, 1368-1369. Hilla Jonckers was mentioned in 1368.
 R. 1194, fol. 199vo.
 R. 1186, fol. 150, 1408-1409; R. 1199, fol. 244, 1428-1429.
 R. 1184, fol. 238, 1405.
 Dr. Lucas G.C.M. van Dijck, “Van vroomheid naar vriendschap”, p. 170.
 R. 1229, fol. 143vo, 4 July 1459. See more about him R. 1209, fol. 277vo, 21 November 1438; fol. 306, 12 March 1439; R. 1227, fol. 459, 26 August 1457. Several of Jan’s transactions are known in 1438 and 1439.R. 1209, fol. 227vo and 306.
 R. 1208, fol. 91vo.
 R. 1194, fol. 199vo, 5 June 1424.
 R. 1208, fol. 5, 1438; R. 1209,fol. 36, 1439; R. 1210, fol. 351, 1440.
 R. 1204, 202vo, 8 May 1534.
 R. 1194, fol. 266vo.
 R. 1197, fol. 292vo, 29 July 1526 : loan provided by him; R. 1199, fol. 382vo, 15 June 1429: purchase of a rent; R. 1204, fol. 265vo, 8 May 1434: loan to the vice guardian of the Franciscans; R. 1219, fol. 274vo,9 January 1449 loan provided by him.
 R. 1215, fol. 149vo. Heer Johannes van Dommelen alias Meerskens was the son of Godefridus Meersken. This priest had an illegitimate son Jan, who became a goldsmith. Heer Johannes was a notary and a sworn member of the ILVB. He died in 1445. Van Dijck, Van Vroomheid, p. 258.
 Hence the name Abtsbrug.
 R. 1244, . 1234, fol. 151vo, 12 August 1452: he made a money promise; R. 1236, fol. 63, 8 April 1467: inheritance arrangement with his wife Margaretha Bollen’s family; R. 1237, fol. 65, 7 July 1468: he made a money promise; R. 1240, fol. 355, 27 March 1471: he made a money promise; R. 1241, fol. 342vo, 15 April 1472: he made a money promise; R. 1239, fol. 36vo, 20 January 1470: he made a money promise; R. 1249, fol. 347, 21 April 1480: he made a money promise; R. 1251, fol. 329vo, 15 February 1482: His second wife and her daughter Johanna were owners of several lots at Belver in the parish of Haren; R. 1251, fol. 426; R. 1246, fol. 227vo,15 June 1482: Several transactions of his widow and daughter Johanna are annulled.
 R. 1238, fol. 169, 15 October 1468.
 R. 1245, fol. 64. See also: R. 1243, fol. 76, 31 September 1474.
 R. 1278, fol. 447vo, 9 January 1509.
 R. 1283, fol.323vo, 20 May 1513; R. 1289, 171v, 21 April 1518; R. 1308, fol. 593, 19 December 1528; R. 1312, fol. 223, 21 July 1530; R. 1316, fol. 478, 23 September 1532; R. 1333, fol. 388, 12 February 1541.
 R. 1267, fol. 130, 15 February 1499; 316vo, 14 February 1499; R. 1257, fol. 369vo, 26 April 1499.
 R. 1240, fol. 248o.
 R.1248, fol. 156.
 R. 1248, fol. 232vo and 1249, fol. 242vo. In other acts of a family nature Joost is mentioned in R. 1249, fol. 339, 8 February 1480.
 R. 1240, fol. 248vo:30 March 1471; R. 1240, fol. 272, 22 June 1471; R. 1240, fol. 327, 26 October 1471; R. 1249, fol. 242vo, 25 April 1480; R. 1249, fol. 339, 8 February 1480; R. 1250, fol. 273, 27 March 1481; R. 1316, fol. 478, 23 September 1532; R. 1334.
 R. 1283, fol.23vo, 20 May 1513. The son of this Willem Molius was the well-known chronicle writer Willem Molius.
 R. 1241, fol. 370.
 See about him R. 1270, 352, 19 July 1501; R. 1276, fol. 43vo, 28 May 1507; R. 1269, fol. 149vo, 17 April 1501;
 R. 1283, fol.216vo.
 R. 1305, fol. 142.
 R. 1311, fol. 218.
 City accounts 1532-1533, chapter 19.
 BHIC, assets 1889, 63.
 City account B. 30.
 R. 1379, fol. 405.
 R. 1369, fol. 280vo and R. 1379, fol. 190.
 R. 1240, fol. 272.
 R. 1249, fol. 362vo.
 R. 1250, fol. 273.
 R. 1251, fol. 223 and 258.
 R. 1252, fol. 84.
 H.J.M. van Rooy, The Old- Archive of the Groot-Ziekengasthuis, regist. 1669.
 R. 1262, fol. 367.
 R. 1263, fol. 324.
 R. 1267, fol. 316vo.
 ILVB means “Illustre Lieve Vrouwe Broederschap” in the Church of Sint Jan. References are based on the archive which, as to memberships, is fully accessible by date on the BHIC website.
 R. 1267, fol. 316vo.
 R. 1267, fol. 32.
 R. 1269, fol. 149vo.
 R. 1270, fol. 351vo.
 R. 1308, fol. 153, 19 February 1529.  Mentioned by name in R. 1344, fol. 132vo, 2 January 1546.
 OSA 4036, fol. 31; Is also mentioned in R. 1337, fol. 79vo, 20 January 1542.
 R. 1319, fol. 395, 10 June 1534.
 R. 136, fol. 212vo, 15 February 1547.
 B. 30.
 R. 1378, fol. 448, 15 July 1560.
 OSA, City accounts 1500-1515.
 R. 1308, fol. 153, 19 February 1528.
 R. 1283, 216vo.
 R. 1283, fol. 323vo.
 Archive ILVB, account 1519-1520, scan. 98.
 R. 1314, fol. 290, 27 March 1531.
 OSA, Judicial archive, 187, 14 August 1529.
 R. 1330, fol. 22vo.; He sold an excise duty from the house on 28 June 1561, in accordance with 1379, fol. 406vo.
 R. 1376, fol. 349vo.
 Sorted out till about 1565.
 R. 1240, fol. 248vo, 30 March 1471.
 R. 1283, fol. 216vo and 323vo.
 More details about the family in R. 1267, fol. 130, 15 February 1499; R. 1270, fol. 352, 19 July 1501; R. 1272, fol. 191vo, 8 July 1504; R. 1283, fol.216vo, 10 November 1512; R. 1289, fol. 116vo, 10 February 1519; R. 1296, fol. 153, 5 April 1522; R. 1298, fol. 23, 7 September 1522, and fol. 208vo, 7 September 1523; R. 1302, fol. 118vo, 11 February 1525; R. 1305, fol. 165, 16 June 1526; R. 1314, fol. 263, 30 November 1530; R. 1323, fol. 220, 19 September 1535; R. 1333, fol. 233vo, 10 June 1541; R.1333, fol. 468, 18 August 1541; R. 1333, fol. 299, 13 September 1541; R. 1336, fol. 59, 20 September 1542; R. 1336, fol. 84vo, 19 January 1542; R. 1336, fol. 220, 10 April 1542; R. 1343, fol. 178vo, 29 January 1545; R. 1378, fol. 255vo, 25 September 1559; R. 1842, fol.483, anno 1534. Van Deursen; “s-Hertogenbosch van straet tot stroom”, Zwolle z.j., p. 337; A.F.O. van Sasse van Ysselt,” De voorname huizen”, I, p. 166; II, p. 210; III, p. 436;
 R. 1323, fol. 220.
 L.C.H. Schutjes, “Geschiedenis van het bisdom ‘s-Hertogenbosch”, Sint – Michielsgestel 1872, IV, p. 486-487.
 Her other children were Aleid, Dorffa (married to Henricus Kemp), Wilhelma (married to Henricus Goessens Heeren), Frans and Agnes (married to Gijsbert Jans IJsbrants).
 OSA, 1411, city account 1559-1560. The sales act in R. 1378, fol. 255vo. Also see: R. 1380, fol. 29, 14 November 1560.
 R. 1383, fol. 523vo, 7 September 1563.
 R. 337, fol. 79vo, 20 January 1542; R. 1337, fol. 163, in the year 1542; R. 1339, fol. Fol. 62vo, in the year 1543; R. 1341, 262, in the year 1544; R. 1342, fol. 319, 22 April 1545; R. 1344, fol.175, 27 January 1546; R. 1344, fol. 436, 16 September 1546; R. 1345, fol. 87, 21 October 1547;
 R. 1368, fol. 76vo, 2 January 1556.
 In R. 1382, fol. 305, 7 November 1562 he sold a house on the Vuchterdijk. He was 25 years old then.
 R. 1377, fol. 490, 19 August 1560; R 1381, fol. 307, 8 November 1561.
 R. 1846, fol. 44, 9 May 1560.
 R. 1296, fol. 232, 11 September 1522; R. 1300, fol. 62, 19 January 1524; R. 1305, fol. 288, 29 December 1525; R. 1323, fol. 220, 19 September 1536; R. 1336, fol. 59, 20 September 1542; R. 1339, fol. 10vo, 15 October 1543; R. 1350, fol. 105, 17 March1548.
 R. 1381, fol. 74, 30 January 1599 in the margin); R. 1433, fol. 168, 15 April 1595; R. 1433, fol. 207, 8 May 1595; R. 1382, fol. 264, 13 August 1608.
 R. 1354, fol. 85, 4 November 1549; R. 1377, fol. 118vo, 14 April 1559; R. 1846, fol. 73, 14 April 1556; R. 1383, fol. 320, 15 April 1563 (buys two houses in the Vuchterstraat); R. 1429, fol. 6, 16 October 1620; R. 1431, fol. 261, 6 June 1592 (sale of “de Witte Arend” by son Nicolaus. R. 1433, fol. 168, 15 April 1595; R. 1433, fol. 207, 8 May 1595;
 R. 1852, fol. 5, 20 January 1567. Bertha did not become a member of the ILVB until 1564. She still lived in the town on 22 June 1629, according to R. 1380, fol. 29vo. ; see also R. 1382, fol. 264, 13 August 1608.
 R. 1386, fol. 71, anno 1621: Still alive. A “zomerhuys”or “lanthuys” in Vught is mentioned, inherited from their great-aunt Aleid Jonckers.
 OSA, 1413. Sold a house on the Vuchterdijk in 1562. In R. 1371, fol. 199, 20 February 1557: Johanna widow of Goeswinus Jan Peters die Wael.
 R. 1335, fol. 3 and R. 1352, fol. 32vo, 22 August 1549.
 R. 1846, fol. 44.
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